Cycling Research

The purpose of this page is to summarise the research and other studies related to cycling. That is to provide a bibliography or quick reference for the papers etc. The papers are sorted into the broad categories and where appropriate a brief further annotations as to what the paper is about will be provided.

This page was last updated on April 17 2015.

Cycling Research – Bicycle Safety Programs – Children

Hooshmand, J., Hotz, G., Neilson, V. & Chandler, L. (2014). BikeSafe: Evaluating a bicycle safety program for middle school aged children. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 66, 182-186.

Twisk, D. A. M., J., Vlakveld, W. P., Commandeur, J. F., Shope, J. T., & Kok, G. (2014). Five road safety education programmes for young adolescent pedestrians and cyclists: A multi-programme evaluation in a field setting. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 66, 55-61.


Cycling Research – Bicycle Helmets Related Research

Bicycle Helmets and Crashes Related Studies

Bambach, M. R., Mitchell, R. J., Grzebieta, R. H., & Olivier, J. (2013). The effectiveness of helmets in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles: A case-control study.  Accident Analysis & Prevention, 53, 78-88.

Biegler, P. & Johnson, M. (2013). In defence of mandatory bicycle helmet legislation: response to Hooper and Spicer. Journal of Medical Ethics. doi:10.1136/medethics-2013-101476

Cripton, P. A., Dressler, D. M., Stuart, C. A., Dennison, D. R. (2014). Bicycle helmets are highly effective at preventing head injury during head impact: Head-form accelerations and injury criteria for helmeted and unhelmeted impacts. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 70, 1-7.

Orsi, C., Ferraro, O. E., Montomoli, C., Otte, D., & Morandi, A. (2014). Alcohol consumption, helmet use and head trauma in cycling collisions in Germany. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 65, 97-104. – Added February 2014

Elvik, R. (2011). Publication bias and time-trend bias in meta-analysis of bicycle helmet efficacy: A re-analysis of Attewell, Glase and McFadden, 2001. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43(3), 1245-1251.

Hooper, C. & Spicer, J. (2012). Liberty or death; don’t tread on me. Journal of Medical Ethics, 38, 338-341.

Hooper, C. R. & Spicer, J. (2013). Bike helmets: a reply to replies. Journal of Medical Ethics. doi:10.1136/medethics-2013-101723

Markowitz, S. & Chatterji, P. (2015). Effects of bicycle helmet laws on children’s injuries. Health Economics, 24. 26-40 – Added January 2015

Trégouët, P. (2013). Helmets or not? Use science correctly. Journal of Medical Ethics. doi:10.1136/medethics-2013-101521

Bicycle Helmets and Mandatory Use Legislation

Karkhaneha, M., Rowea, B. H., Saundersa, L. D., Voaklandera, D. C., Hagelc, B. E. (2011). Bicycle helmet use four years after the introduction of helmet legislation in Alberta, Canada. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43(3), 788-796.

McNally, D.S. & Whitehead, S. (2013). A computational simulation study of the influence of helmet wearing on head injury risk in adult cyclists. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 60, 15-23.

Rissel, C. (2012). The impact of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia: A rejoinder.  Accident Analysis and Prevention, 45, 107-109.

Walter, S. R., Olivier, J., Churches, T. & Grzebieta, R. (2011). The impact of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43(6), 2064-2071.

Walter, S. R., Olivier, J., Churches, T. & Grzebieta, R. (2013). The impact of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia: A response. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 52, 204-209.

Bicycle Helmet Research Meta Analysis

Haworth, N., Schraman, A., King, M. & Steinhardt, D. (2010). Bicycle helmets research. CARRS-Q Monograph Series – Monograph 5. Kelvin Grove, Qld: Queensland University of Technology Centre for Accident Research & Road Safety – Queensland.


Cycling Research – Cyclists and Motorist Interaction

Ampt, L., Somers, P. & Munro, C. (2010).  Understanding the relationship between cyclists and drivers. Melbourne, VIC: Department of Transport.

Basford, Reid, Lester and Thomson (2002). Drivers’ perceptions of cyclists (TRL Report TRL549). United Kingdom: TRL Limited.

Cycling Safety Panel. (2012, December). Safer journeys for people who cycle: Cycling Safety Panel final report and recommendations. Added February 2015

Hagel, B. E.,  Romanow, N.T.R., Morgunov, N., Embree, T.,  Couperthwaite, A. B., Voaklander, D., & Rowe, B. H. (2014). The relationship between visibility aid use and motor vehicle related injuries among bicyclists presenting to emergency departments. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 65, 114-122. 

Olivier, J. & Walter, S. R. (2013). Bicycle Helmet Wearing Is Not Associated with Close Motor Vehicle Passing: A Re-Analysis of Walker, 2007. PLoS One 8(9): e75424

Walker, I. (2009). Drivers overtaking bicyclists: Objective data on the effects of riding position, helmet use, vehicle type and apparent gender. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39, 417-225. * See also Dr Walker’s website for further details on this study

Walker, I., Garrard, I. & Jowitt, F. (2014). The influence of a bicycle commuter’s appearance on drivers’ overtaking proximities: An on-road test of bicyclist stereotypes, high-visibility clothing and safety aids in the United Kingdom. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 64, 69-77.

Wood, J. M., Tyrrell, R. A., Marszalek, R. P., Lacherez, P. F., Carberry, T. P., Chu, B. S., & King, M. J. (2010). Cyclist visibility at night: Perceptions of visibility do not necessarily match reality. Journal of Australasian College of Road Safety, 21(3), 56-60.

Cycling Research [Minimum] Safe Passing Laws

Amy Gillett Foundation (2104, November 27). Queenslanders embrace ‘Stay wider of the rider’ overtaking distance law.  Retrieved from

Love, D. C., Breaud, A. Burns, S., Margulies, J., Romano, M. & Lawrence, R.  Is the three-foot bicycle passing law working in Baltimore, Maryland? Accident Analysis and Prevention, doi:
10.1016/j.aap.2012.03.002. Added February 13, 2015

Cycling Research – Cyclist’s Visibility

Wood, J. M., Tyrrell, R. A., Marszalek, R. P., Lacherez, P. F., Carberry, T. P., Chu, B. S., & King, M. J. (2010). Cyclist visibility at night: Perceptions of visibility do not necessarily match reality. Journal of Australasian College of Road Safety, 21(3), 56-60.

Croydon Cyclist (2014). How reflective clothing works. [Blog Post]. Retrieved from

Cycling Research – Safe Road Speeds for Children, Cyclists and Pedestrians

Acott, K. (2014, January 4). Bike group pushes speed cuts. The West Australian.


Cycling and Pedestrian Injury Research

Australian Transport Safety Bureau (2006). Deaths of cyclists due to road crashes. Canberra, ACT: Australian Transport Safety Bureau

Ballestas, T., Wilkinson, C. & Weeramanthri, T. (2011).  Rise in bicycle-related injury hospitalisation rates in middle-aged adults, 2000-09.  Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 35(6), 580-581.

Benz (2010). Improvements to the Towards Zero Strategy. Perth, WA: Bicycle Transportation Alliance. [A background paper to the presentation by the Heinrich Benz of the Bicycle Transport Alliance at the Vulnerable Road Users Safety Advisory Group forum for cyclists held on May 14, 2011 in Perth, Western Australia.]

Boufous, S., de Rome, L., Senserrick, T. & Ivers, R. (2012)  Risk factors for severe injury in cyclists involved in traffic crashes in Victoria, Australia. Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 49, 404–409

Cripton, P.A.,  Shen, H., Brubacher, J. R., Chipman, M., Friedman, S. M., Harris, M. A., Winters, M., Reynolds, C. C. O, Cusimano, M.D., Babul, S. & Teschke, K. Severity of urban cycling injuries and the relationship with personal, trip, route and cash characteristics: Analyses using four severity metrics. BMJ Open, 5. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006654.

De Rome, L., Boufous, S., Senserrick, T,, Richardson, D., & Ivers, R. (2011). The pedal study: Factors Associated with bicycle crashes and injury severity in the ACT.  The George Institute for Global Health.

Hagel, B. E., Romanow, N.T.R., Enns, N., Williamson,J. & Rowe, B. H. (2015). Severe bicycling injury risk factors in children and adolescents: A case–control study. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 78, 165-172. – Added March 2015

Haworth, N. & Debnath, A. K. (2013). How similar are two-unit bicycle and motorcycle crashes? Accident Analysis & Prevention, 58, 15-25.

Haworth, N., Schramm, A., & Debnath, A. K. (2014) An observational study of conflicts between cyclists and pedestrians in the city centre. Journal of the Australasian College of Road Safety, 25(4), pp. 31-40.

Henley, G. & Harrison, J. E. (2009). Serious injury due to land transport accidents, Australia 2006-07. (Injury Research and Statistics Series Number 53). Canberra, Australia: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Hitchens, P. L. & Palmer, A. J. (2012).  Characteristics of, and insurance payments for, injuries to cyclists in Tasmania, 1990–2010. Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 49, 449-456.

Joint Standing Committee on Road Safety. (2010). Inquiry into motorcycle and bicycle safety (Report 5/54). Sydney, NSW: Parliament of New South Wales.

Johnson, M., Newstead, S., Oxley, J. & Charlton, J. (2013). Cyclists and open vehicle doors: Crash characteristics and risk factors. Safety Science, 59, 135-140. – Added November 2013

Knowles, J., Adams, S., Cuerden, T., Savill, T., Reid, S., & Tight, M. (2009). Collisions involving cyclists on Britain’s roads: Establish the causes (PPR445). United Kingdom: Transport Research Laboratory.

Lindsay, V.L. (2013). Injured cyclist profile: An in-depth study of a sample of cyclists injured in road crashes in South Australia (CASR112).  Adelaide, Australia: University of Adelaide, Centre for Automotive Safety Research.

Lindsay, T. & Ryan, T. (2011). Medical conditions as a contributing factor in crash causation. Austroads Ltd.

Martinez-Ruiz, V., Lardelli-Claret, P., Jimenez-Mejias, E., Amezuca-Prieto, C., Jimenenez-Moleon, J.J., & de Dios Luna del Castillo, J. (2013). Risk factors for causing road crashes involving cyclists: An application of a quasi-induced exposure method. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 51, 228-237.

Moore, D. N., Schneider IV, W. H., Savolainen, P. T., Farzaneh, M. (2011). Mixed logit analysis of bicyclist injury severity resulting from motor vehicle crashes at intersections and non-intersection locations. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43(3), 621-630.

Olivier, J. Walter, S. R. & Grzebieta, R. H. (2012). Long term bicycle related head injury trends for New South Wales, Australia following mandatory helmet legislation. Accident Analysis & Prevention, Available online 28 September 2012.

Oxley, J. (2010). Improving pedestrian safety. Curtin-Monash Accident Research Centre Fact Sheet Number 6.

Pai, C. (2011). Overtaking, rear-end, and door crashes involving bicycles: An empirical investigation. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43(3), 1228-1235.

Poulos, R.G., Hatfield, J., Rissel, C., Flack, L.K., Murphy, S., Grzebieta, R., & McIntosh, A.S. (2015). An exposure based study of crash and injury rates in a cohort of transport and recreational cyclists in New South Wales. Accident Analysis & Prevention. http://doi:10.1016/j.aap.2015.02.009Added March 20, 2015

Upton, J. (2012, January). “Can cyclists and pedestrians get along?” How to effectively engage with specific groups of cyclists in order to develop better coexistence between cyclists and pedestrians on shared paths. Paper presented at the 4th Australian Cycling Conference 2012, Adelaide, South Australia.

Rathi, A. (2014). Lack of dedicated routes leaves pedestrians at risk from cyclists. The Conversation.

Schramm, A. J., Rakotonirainy, A. and Haworth, N. L. (2010) The role of traffic violations in police-reported bicycle crashes in Queensland. Journal of the Australasian College of Road Safety, 21(3). pp. 61-67.

Stimpson, J. P., Wilson, F. A., Muelleman, R. I. (2013). Fatalities of pedestrians, bicycle riders, and motorists due to distracted driving motor vehicle crashes in the U.S.. 2005-2010. Public Health Reports, 128, 436-442

Thompson, P. E., Hill, D. L. (2010). Reported Road Crashes in Western Australia 2007. Road Safety Council of Western Australia.

Voelcker, J. (2007). A critical review of the legal penalties for drivers who kill cyclists or pedestrians [UK research]. For a summary of findings, click here and for the related website, click here.

Yan, X., Ma, M., Huang, H. Abdel-Aty, M. & Wu, C. (2011). Motor vehicle-bicycle crashes in Beijing: Irregular manoeuvres, crash patterns and injury severity.  Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43(5), 1751-1758.

Cycling Research – Participation in Cycling

Ahmed, H., Qureshi, O. M. & Khan, A. A. (2015). Reviving a ghost in the history of technology: The social construction of the recumbent bicycle. Social Studies of Science, 45(1), 130-136. – Added January 2015

Buehler, R. & Pucher, J. (2012).  Cycling to work in 90 large American cities: New evidence on the role of bike paths and lanes.  Transportation, 39, 409-432.

Carver, A., Timperio, A., & Crawford, D. (2013). Parental chauffeurs: what drives their transport choice? Journal of Transport Geography, 26, 72-77.

Crawford,B., Rissel, C., Yamazaki, R., Franke, E., Amanatidis, S., Ravulo, J., Bindon, J. & Torvaldsen, S. (2012). “It’s good to have wheels!” Perceptions of cycling among homeless young people in Sydney, Australia. Youth Studies Australia, 31(4), 55-63.

Cycling Promotion Fund and National Heart Foundation of Australia (2013). Women and Cycling Survey 2013. Cycling Promotion Fund and National Heart Foundation of Australia.

Ducheyne, F., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Lenoir, M., & Cardon, G. (2013). Does a cycle training course improve cycling skills in children? Accident Analysis & Prevention, 59, 38-45.

Fishman, E., Washington, S. & Haworth, N. (2012). Understanding the fear of bicycle riding in Australia. Journal of the Australasian College of Road Safety, 23(3), 19-27.

Gordon, G. & Parkin, J. (2012, January). Identifying distinct cycle route typologies from single point bicycle counts. Paper presented at the 4th Australian Cycling Conference 2012, Adelaide, South Australia.

Harbour Sports (2014, May). Survey Results: “Does cycling make young people better drivers?

Johnson M., Oxley, J. & Cameron, M. (2009).  Cyclist bunch riding: A review of the literature (Report No. 285). Melbourne, Vic.: Monash University Accident Research Centre.

Kingham, S., Taylor, K. & Koorey, G. (2011, October). Assessment of the type of cycling infrastructure required to attract new cyclists. New Zealand Transport Agency Research Report No. 449.

Kretschmer, R. (2012, January). Spatial representations of walking and cycling catchments: adding meaning through local participation. Paper presented at the 4th Australian Cycling Conference 2012, Adelaide, South Australia.

Lumb, P. (2012, January). Cycling, walking and biodiversity: Occupying urban landscapes. Paper presented at the 4th Australian Cycling Conference 2012, Adelaide, South Australia.

MacColl, F. (2010). Australian National Cycling Strategy 2011 – 2016. Sydney, NSW: Austroads Pty Ltd.

Piatkowski, D. P. & Marshall, W. (2015). Not all prospective bicyclists are created equal: The role of attitudes, socio-demographics, and the built environment in bicycle commuting. Travel Behaviour and Society. – Added March 20, 2015

Pucher, J., Dill, J., & Handy, S. (2010). Infrastructure, programs,and policies to increase bicycling: An international review. Preventive Medicine,  50 (S106S125).

Puniard, D. (2012, January). Maps for Australian cycle tourists in the online world: who uses them and what content are they looking for? Paper presented at the 4th Australian Cycling Conference 2012, Adelaide, South Australia.

Parker, K. M., Gustat, J., & Rice, J. C. (2011). Installation of bicycle lanes and increased ridership in an urban, mixed-income setting in New Orléans, Louisiana. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 8(Suppl 1), S98 – S102.

Wang, C., Akar, G., Guldmann, J. (2015). Do your neighbours affect your bicycling choice? A spatial profit model for bicycling to The Ohio State University. Journal of Transport Geography, 42, 122-130. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2014.12.003

Zander, A., Passmore, E., Mason C., & Rissel, C. (2013). Joy, Exercise, Enjoyment, Getting out: A Qualitative Study of Older People’s Experience of Cycling in Sydney, Australia. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2013.

Other Materials – Participation in Cycling

European Cyclists’ Federation (2013,  September).  Bigger than Denmark: Economic benefits of cycling in the EU-27.


Cycling Research – Road Design and Cycling Infrastructure

Archer, Fotheringham, Symmons & Corben (2008). The impact of lowered speed limits in urban and metropolitan areas. Monash Accident Research Centre, Report no. 276.

Asmus, D., Jurisich, I., Campbell, D. & Dunn, R. (2012). Evaluation of the C-roundabout – an improved multi-lane roundabout design for cyclists. New Zealand Transport Agency Research Report 510.

Austroads (2012). Traffic Management and Infrastructure – Lessons from In-depth Crash Investigation (Austroads Publication No. AP-R418-12). Sydney, NSW: Austroads.

Cumming, B. (2011). Roundabouts: Why they are dangerous for cyclists and what can be done about it. Transport Engineering in Australia, 13(1), 27-40.

Cumming, B. M. (2012, January). A bicycle friendly roundabout: designing to direct cyclists to ride where drivers look.  Paper presented at the 4th Australian Cycling Conference 2012, Adelaide, South Australia.

Ducheyne, F., De Bourdeaudhuij, L., Lenoir, M., & Cardon, G. (2014). Effects of a cycle training course on children’s cycling skills and levels of cycling to school. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 67, 49-60.

Garcia, A., Gomez, F. A., Llorca, C. (2015). Effect of width and boundary conditions on meeting maneuvers on two-way separated cycle tracks. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 78, 127-137.

Gossling, S. & Choi, A. S. (2014). Transport transitions in Cophenagen: Comparing the cost of cars and bicycles. Ecological Economics, 113, 106-113.

Kotsoglo, P. (2012, January). The potential is exponential: Incentivising provision of cycling facilities. Paper presented at the 4th Australian Cycling Conference 2012, Adelaide, South Australia.

Levasseur, M. (2014). Cycling Aspects of Austroads Guides (2nd Ed.). Sydney, NSW: Austroads Ltd.

McDonald, A. (2012, January). A car is 1.9m wide. How much extra space does it really need?  Paper presented at the 4th Australian Cycling Conference 2012, Adelaide, South Australia.

McGill, A. & Zwart, J. (2012, January). All things considered: Developing a holistic and all encompassing assessment system for evaluating prospective active transport infrastructure. Paper presented at the 4th Australian Cycling Conference 2012, Adelaide, South Australia.

Nordback, K., Marshall, W. E., & Janson, B. N. (2014). Bicyclist safety performance functions for a U.S. city. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 65, 114-122.

Patterson, F. (2012, January). What went wrong? A review of Adelaide City Council’s Sturt Street trial. Paper presented at the 4th Australian Cycling Conference 2012, Adelaide, South Australia.

Reid, S. & Adams, S. (2010). Final project report PPR580: Infrastructure and Cyclist Safety. Transport Research Laboratory, London, UK.

Schepers, J. P., Kroeze, P. A., Sweers, W., & Wust, J. C., (2011) Road factors and bicycle-motor vehicle crashes at unsignalized priority intersections. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43(3), 853-861.

Taverner Research (2013, May). Contra-Flow Bicycle Lanes: A Behavioural Study (Project Reference: 4606). Roads and Maritime Services, NSW.

Thomas, B. & DeRobertis, M. (2013). The safety of urban cycle tracks: A review of the literature. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 52, 219-227.

Transport for London. (2014). International Cycling Infrastructure Best Practice Study. Transport for London.


Commentary – Road Design and Cycling Infrastructure

Burgess, K. (2013, May 2).  I don’t ride a bike, why should I support measures to boost cycling? The Times.

Cyclist Behaviour Research

Gustafsson, L. (2013). A naturalistic study of commuter cyclists in the greater Stockholm area. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 58, 286-298.

Shaw, L., Poulos, R. G., Hatfield, J. & Rissel, C. (2014). Transport cyclists and road rules: What influences the decisions they make. Injury Prevention, Inj Prev doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2014-041243

Vansteenkiste, P., Cardon, G., D’Hondt, E., Philipparets, R., & Lenoir, M. (2013). The visual control of bicycle steering: The effects of speed and path width. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 51, 222-227.

Wu, C., Yao, L. & Zhang, K. (2012). The red light running behaviour of electric bike riders and cyclists at urban intersections in China: An observational study. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 49, 186-192.

Cyclist Behaviour Research – Red Light Jumping

Johnson, Newstead, Charlton & Oxley (2011). Riding through red lights: The rate, characteristics and risk factors of non-compliant urban commuter cyclists. 43(1), 323-328.

Johnson, M., Charlton, J. Oxley, J. & Newstead, S. (2013).  Why do cyclists infringe at red lights? An investigation of Australian cyclists’ reasons for red light infringement.  Accident Analysis and Prevention, 50, 870-847.

Pai, C., & Jou, R. (2013). Cyclists’ red-light running behaviours: An examination of risk-taking, opportunistic, and law-obeying behaviours. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 62, 191-198.

Cycling Research – Other Related Posts

News Articles Worth of Note

Robertson, J. & Saulwick, J. (August 31, 2013). Close encounters of the hostile kind. The Sydney Morning Herald. The article suggests 88% of motorists at fault in cyclist versus motorist incidents.

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